Important Risk Factors For Hypertension
Dec 20, 2023
1. High-sodium, low-potassium meals:
Sodium (sodium chloride) intake was positively associated with blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension, whereas potassium intake was negatively associated with blood pressure levels. The dietary sodium/potassium ratio was more strongly associated with blood pressure. Studies have shown that an average daily increase in dietary sodium intake of 2 g increases SBP and DBP by 2.0 mm Hg and 1.2 mm Hg, respectively . High-sodium and low-potassium diets are one of the main risk factors for the development of most hypertensive patients.
2. Overweight and obesity:
Body fat content is positively correlated with blood pressure levels. Body mass index (BMI) is positively correlated with blood pressure levels in the population. For every 3 kg/m2 increase in BMI, the risk of developing hypertension within 4 years increases by 50% in men and 57% in women. Studies have shown that people with a BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 have a 3 to 4 times higher risk of developing hypertension than those with normal weight. The distribution of body fat is also associated with the occurrence of hypertension. The more fat in the abdomen, the higher the blood pressure level. Waist circumference ≥ 90 cm in men or ≥ 85 cm in women, the risk of developing hypertension is more than 4 times that of those with normal waist circumference.
Excessive alcohol consumption is also a risk factor for hypertension, and the prevalence of hypertension in the population increases with the increase of alcohol consumption. Although blood pressure will drop in a short time after a small amount of drinking, long-term small drinking can slightly increase blood pressure; excessive drinking can significantly increase blood pressure. If drinking >3 standard drinks per day on average (one standard drink is equivalent to 12 g of alcohol), SBP and DBP increased by an average of 3.5 mm Hg and 2.1 mm Hg, respectively, and the increase in blood pressure increased with the increase in alcohol consumption.
Long-term mental stress is also a risk factor for hypertension, and the prevalence of hypertension increases in people who have been engaged in high-stress work for a long time.
5. Other risk factors:
Other risk factors for hypertension include age, family history of hypertension, and lack of physical activity. In addition to hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors include smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity.
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